Since the respiratory airways branch to all parts of the lungs and ready access is provided through the nose or mouth, exploration of these passages for direct visualization or tissue sampling has long been a clinical challenge. This would be particularly helpful in diagnosing those pulmonary diseases that involve the bronchial tree or affect the surrounding lung parenchyma which prove difficult to diagnose or define by indirect methods. The pioneering efforts of Chevalier Jackson in 1918, using bismuth insufflation for radiologic visualization of the bronchial tree, and of Sicard and Forestier, who introduced poppy seed oil (lipiodol) in 1922, rapidly established bronchography as a practical radiologic diagnostic procedure. The initial enthusiasm was soon tempered by recognition of practical problems, and over the years the popularity of bronchography has waxed and waned as techniques were refined and new equipment, instrumentation and contrast agents evaluated. At the same time, alternative methods of diagnosis were being developed, notably sputum cytology, percutaneous needle aspira- tion and biopsy, and bronchial brushing. In recent years, a number of medical and technologic developments have revived interest in transbronchial techniques and have made such a diagnostic approach more attractive. Improvements in topical airway anesthesia effectiveness have simplified passage of a variety of catheters, brushes, biopsy devices, fiberoptic or other bronchoscopic instruments along the bronchial passageways. Methods of guiding the catheter or other trans bronchial instrument toward the target site in the lung have also been refined.
Patrick Suskind's Perfume is a classic novel of death and sensuality in Paris 'In eighteenth-century France there lived a man who was one of the most gifted and abominable personages in an era that knew no lack of gifted and abominable personages. His name was Jean-Baptiste Grenouille, and if his name has been forgotten today, it is certainly not because Grenouille fell short of those more famous blackguards when it came to arrogance, misanthropy, immorality, or, more succinctly, wickedness, but because his gifts and his sole ambition were restricted to a domain that leaves no traces in history: to the fleeting realm of scent ...' 'An astonishing tour de force both in concept and execution' Guardian 'A fantastic tale of murder and twisted eroticism controlled by a disgusted loathing of humanity ...Clever, stylish, absorbing and well worth reading' Literary Review 'A meditation on the nature of death, desire and decay ...a remarkable debut' Peter Ackroyd, The New York Times Book Review 'Unlike anything else one has read. A phenomenon ...Everyone seems to want to get a whiff of this strange perfume, which will remain unique in contemporary literature' Figaro 'An ingenious and totally absorbing fantasy' Daily Telegraph 'Witty, stylish and ferociously absorbing' Observer Patrick Suskind was born near Munich, in 1949. He studied medieval and modern history at the University of Munich. His first play, The Double Bass, was written in 1980 and became an international success. His first novel, Perfume, became an internationally acclaimed bestseller. He is also the author of The Pigeon and Mr. Summer's Story, and a coauthor of the enormously successful German television series Kir Royal. Patrick Suskind lives and writes in Munich.
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